Frog              tsindeˀskyah[1]



Toad            ketǫhskwaˀyęh



ǫmahšutaʼa           She is grandparent to us[2].


ǫma-                feminine-zoic singular agent + 1st person plural patient – she – us

-hšuta-             verb root – be grandparent to

-ˀ-                     stative aspect

-a                     diminutive aspect suffix


Jump           teundaʼskwatih      It is jumping, has jumped have jumped.


te-                    dualic

-u-                    feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-ndaˀskwat-      verb root – jump

-ih                    stative aspect


Croak           atakyahs    It talks, croaks.


ataky-              feminine-zoic singular agent – it + verb root – talk

-ahs                  habitual aspect


[1] It is translated in Barbeau’s Narratives as ‘it stoops’ but that would seem to be a folk etymology, and therefore not an accurate translation.

[2] The toad is called this because a female toad successfully dove for earth to put on the back of the great turtle.

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