-hš(a)- (without incorporating a noun)


d          utahšešah                     ąhšaˀkǫˀ

when   you finished it             you broke it in many pieces


you put it in a poor state


When you finished breaking it into pieces  You put it in a bad state.”


utahšešah                      You (s) completed, finished it.


u-                                 factual

-t-                                 dualic

-a-                                factual

-hše-                            2nd person singular agent – you (s)

-hša                              verb root – finish

-h                                 punctual aspect (abnormal form)


dae       wetiˀ    ahsayuhšęˀ



that      all        he finished, killed them (ind)


ahsayuhšęˀ                    He finished, killed them.


a-                     factual

-hsayu-           masculine singular agent + indefinite patient – he – them (ind)

-hš-                  verb root – finish

-ęˀ                    punctual aspect


ąˀǫsęˀ                    They (ind) finished, died.


ąˀ-                    factual

-ǫ-                    indefinite agent – they (ind)

-s-                    semi-reflexive-verb root – finish

-ęˀ                    punctual aspect


-ihša-  (when incorporating a noun root)


aˀžatriwihšęˀ                                                                nęh      daeˀ      ehutingyakaˀ

they two (m) finished a matter, made a decision        now     that      they (m) will get married

They made a decision, now they will get married.


aˀžatriwihšęˀ          They two (m) finished a matter, made a decision.


aˀ-                    factual

-ž-                    masculine dual agent – they two (m)

-at-                   semi-reflexive

-riw-                noun root – matter

-ihš-                 verb root – finish

– ęˀ                   punctual aspect


ahatekwihšę                   He finished eating.


a-                     factual

-h-                    masculine singular agent – he

-ate-                 semi-reflexive

-kw-                 noun root – food, meal

-ihš-                 verb root – finish

-ę                     punctual aspect


utenyędihšaˀih       She skillfully finished it.  She finished it with skill.                                  [oo-ten-yen-deeh-shah-ah-eeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient – it

-te-                   semi-reflexive

-nyęd-              noun root – skill, ability

-ihšaˀ-              verb root – finish

-ih                    stative aspect



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