have as nephew or niece (woman speaking)

Have as Nephew or Niece (Sibling’s Child) – Female Speaking -hšǫʼdrahka-[1]


yehšǫʼdrahka[2]     I have her as niece (woman speaking).


ye-                   1st person singular agent + feminine-zoic singular patient – I – her

-hšǫʼdrahka-    verb root – have as niece (woman speaking) + stative aspect


hehšǫʼdrahka      I have him as nephew (woman speaking).


he-                   1st person singular agent + masculine singular patient – I – him

-hšǫʼdrahka-    verb root – have as nephew (woman speaking) + stative aspect


hšǫʼdrahka      I have you as niece or nephew (woman speaking)


yǫ-                   1st person singular agent + 2nd person singular patient – I – you                          -hšǫʼdrahka-     verb root – have as nephew (woman speaking) + stative aspect


ǫmahšǫʼdrahka     She has us as nieces/nephews; our aunt.


ǫma-                feminine-zoic singular agent + 1st person plural patient – she – us

-hšǫʼdrahka-    verb root – have as nephew/niece (woman speaking) + stative aspect


[1] Up until the nineteenth century this just referred to her brother’s children.

[2] It is possible that the final -a- is a diminutive aspect suffix.

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