Independent Pronouns

Independent Pronouns

Independent pronouns are those that are not incorporated into a verb or noun.  There are three of them, for first, second and third person respectively.  They are used for emphasis.


ęˀndih                                      I, me, we, us


ęˀndih            trǫndiˀ         yeyuwahnęh    tižuh    de        sa        I am larger than you.

I                       much               I am large        it is so  the       you

sa        trǫndiˀ  saˀndiyǫruwanę           tižuh    n          ęˀndih         You are wiser than me.          

you      much   you are wise                it is so  the       me


išehskęˀnyąˀ                 ndeˀ     sa        tižuh    n          ęˀndih         You are smaller than me.       

you are small               the       you      it is so  the       I


tuh       n          ęˀndih           inyǫmarihuˀtęˀ             d          anyǫmeh

there    the       we                   our customs are such   who     we (x) are humans

Our matters are such as human beings (i.e., Native Americans or Wyandotte).


ižuhtinęˀ           n          ęˀndih             de        yǫmeh

it was so          the       I                       who     I am a human, Wyandotte

It was like that for I who am a human being, Wyandotte.


sa [sah]                           you (singular, dual and plural)

n          ąˀhęndiˀ            sa        sarahskwaˀ       de        etiˀtrǫˀ

now     go                    you      leave!               the       where she resides


you two are spouses, your spouse

You, leave to where she resides, your spouse.


šǫˀmąndeˀ        sa        eˀšatahseht

at yourself       you      you will hide yourself

You will hide yourself.



ǫndae՚                           that one, those (ones)



This is the third person particle pronoun, covering masculine, feminine and indefinite pronominal prefixes.  It is very frequently used, often right after the definite article -(n)(d)e-.  As with the other independent pronouns, it typically comes before the verb.  It is usually shortened after a word ending with a vowel.


ne        daeˀ    ne        kǫmątęhtiˀ

the       those    who     they (m) made her fall, dropped her

They (m) are those who made her fall.


ǫndaeˀ          nde      yawinǫh

that one           who     she is a young woman

That one is a young woman.


nde      tayuwanęh                 ndaeˀ           hamęndižu                               de

the       he is the elder              that one           he is great in voice                  the

huhkęnyeˀ                                ndaeˀ             ǫndehšurunǫˀ

he is smaller, younger             that one           he dwells inside the earth.

The elder one is he who is great in voice, God.  The younger one is the dweller inside the earth, the Devil.


ǫndaeˀ        eyǫnǫnt                       de        yandutaˀ

that one           I will give you             the       hunting charm

That one I will give you, the hunting charm.







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