Must Not

Must Not – wehstaˀtuˀ


The negative imperative particle wehstaˀtuˀ [weh-stah-ah-too-oo]can be translated as ’must not.‘  It typically comes right before a verb that takes the future prefix -e-.  That verb does not take the negative prefix – te-.  This particle is usually used with the second person agent or patient, less often with the masculine and the feminine.


wehstaˀtuˀ             ešengyaha            You must not eat it.

must not                      you will eat it


ešengyaha             You will eat it.


e-                     future

-še-                  2nd person singular agent

-ngya-              noun root – food

-h-                    verb root – eat

-a                     punctual aspect


westaˀtuˀ          dežaˀ                daeˀ                  esatrǫnyuwaˀ   You must not ever discuss that

must not          ever                 that                  you will discuss

[deh-zhah-ah]  [dah-eh-eh]


esatrǫnyuwaˀ         You will discuss it.


e-         future

-s-        2nd person singular patient – you

-at-       semi-reflexive voice

-rǫny-  noun root – sky

-uwa-   verb root – be large

-ˀ          punctual aspect


wehstaˀtuˀ   eharętęh               He must not cry.

must not          he will cry




e-         future

-h-        masculine singular agent -he

-aręt-    verb root – cry

-ęh       punctual aspect


wehstaˀtuˀ   eyayęhąˀ               She must not go out.

must not          she will go out


eyayęhąˀ      She will go out.


e-         future

-y-        feminine-zoic singular agent – she

-ayę-    verb root – go out

-ha-      inchoative root suffix

-ˀ          punctual aspect


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