Steal -nęhskwa-


This is a good verb to know about when  you read statements in the early colonial literature that the ‘Indians’/’Savages’ had no concept of ‘theft’ as opposed to borrowing.


hanęskwahǫh       He steals many times, many things.  He is a thief.


ha-                   masculine singular agent – he

-nęskwa-          verb root – steal

-hƍ-                  distributive root suffix

-h                     stative aspect


ahstęhskwaˀ     d’         utsingwaraˀ                  You stole the gold.

you stole it       the       gold

ahstęhskwaˀ         You (s) stole it


a-                     factual

-hs-                  2nd person singular agent – you (s)

[1]tęhskwa-       verb root – steal

-ˀ                      punctual aspect


ayǫnęhskwaˀ        I stole from you.


a-                     factual

-yǫ-                  1st person singular agent + 2nd person singular patient – I – you

-nęhskwa-        verb root – steal

-ˀ                      punctual aspect







[1] When the -š- of the second person singular agent comes in contact with the -n- of this verb root , it changes the -n- to a -t-.

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