Wild Animals

Wild Mammals


atiž                   They (f) are wild animals.


ati-                   feminine-zoic plural agent – they

-žu                   verb root – be a wild animal + stative aspect


Bear                     anyǫnyęʼ[1]   It is a bear


a-                     feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-nyǫnyę-          verb root – be a bear

-ˀ                      stative


hatinyǫnyęʼrǫnǫ    They (m) are people of the bear; Bear clan.


hati-                 masculine plural agent – they (m)

-nyǫnyęˀ-         verb root – be a bear

-rǫnǫ                populative + stative aspect


anyǫyętaʼ              It is made of bear; bearskin


a-                     feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-nyǫnyę-          verb root – be a bear

-t-                    causative root suffix

-aˀ                    habitual aspect


Beaver                            tsuʼtahi        It has very thick fur.


ts-                    repetitive – very

-u-                    feminine-zoic singular patient – it

-ˀatah-              verb root – have thick fur

-i                      stative aspect


Bobcat                            skęˀkwaˀa.



Buffalo                           tsatarižaˀi



Cougar/Mountain Lion   yęriš[2]



Fox                                skęhšu



Fox                                tsinęˀtǫtǫh   [for the cross fox]



Lynx                              tehutsiˀtut [He has two standing blossoms (ear tufts).


te-                    dualic – two

-hu-                  masculine singular patient – he

-tsiˀt-                noun root – flower, blossom

-ut-                   verb root – stand + stative aspect


Mink, Weasel                  suhǫmędiˀa



Moose                            auskwaʼ[3]



Mouse                            tsuˀngyatęˀah[4]



Muskrat                          suhiˀahšayaha



Otter                               tawindeh



Porcupine                       tsinęˀkaˀ



Rabbit                            tanyǫnyęha



Raccoon                         tirǫ






Skunk                                     uwaʼtatsiʼah[5]            skunk; its body smells bad


uw-      feminine-zoic singular patient – it

-aˀt-      noun root – body

-a-        joiner vowel

-tsiˀa-   verb root – smell bad, strong

-h         stative aspect


Squirrel                          uʼtahi          It has thick fur.


u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient – it                                                                                -ˀtah-              verb root – have thick fu

-i                      stative aspect


Wolf                               y[6]aˀnariskwaˀ        [It used to chew bones].


ya-       feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-ˀn     noun root – bone(s)

-ri-      verb root – bite, chew

-s-      habitual aspect

-kwaˀ   past aspect suffix


hatinariskwaˀ                     They (masculine) used to chew bones, Wolf clan.


-hati-                    masculine plural agent

-ˀn-                        noun root, ‘bone(s)’

-a-                         joiner vowel

-ri-                         verb root – bite, suck, chew’

-s-                           habitual aspect

-kwaˀ                      past aspect suffix


[1] There is an irregular absence of the initial -y- at the beginning of this word. Normally a feminine-zoic singular agent with the consonant conjugation has that -y-.

[2] This is the word from which Lake Erie is named.  While there is some speculation that the name means ‘long tail’, there is no solid proof that it contains a root for ‘tail.’

[3]This appears to be adapted from an Algonquian language term for ‘moose’, the original source for the English word

[4] This word has the feminine-zoic singular patient pronominal prefix -u- and what seems to be the noun root -ngy- ‘finger.’  It is somewhat possible that the verb root -ten- ‘dry’ is used along with the diminutive aspect suffix -ah’ giving the meaning ‘It has very dried up fingers.’

[5]This seems to have a shortened form of the verb root –tsiway– ‘smell bad, strong’.

[6] Sometimes the initial -y- is dropped.

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